In this matter, as in all, Spanish policies are governed by the constitutional principles of 1978. This means that the authority and the capacity to decide are divided between three types of entities: Central State, the 17 Autonomous Communities and local authorities such as municipalities and provinces.
In the case of heritage protection, State law provides the general concepts and regional governments have developed them. State law is Law 16/1985 on Spanish Historical Heritage. In Autonomous Community of Madrid, there is a Law 10/1998 on Historical Heritage of Madrid, which authority is equivalent to that of Sate law and displaces it, specifying certain matters.
The State law establishes 5 legal protection categories for Cultural Interest Assets (Bienes de Interés Cultural BIC) (monument, historical garden, historical complex, historical site and archaeological area). In Madrid there are 268 Items. The autonomic Community of Madrid Law also establishes the same 5 categories in some more local interest assets, and other 3 categories (historical event, place of ethnographic interest and paleontological area (original settlements)).
The municipal regulations have also the authority to protect assets that had not been protected by State or Autonomous Community, through Planning and Catalogues approval.
Cities councils (required to take the two previous categories of protection), are allowed to approve a Catalogue besides the Master Plan or belonging to it, establishing classed assets or buildings.
Usually, in the municipalities, there is a tabbed inventory Catalogue of assets. In Madrid City, the current Master Plan of 1997, presents a great complexity, there are 6 catalogues and other additional protection measures, which I will develop in a future post.
On the other hand, in Spain, there is a state public organism, the National Heritage that guards the property owned by the state concerned to the use and service of the King and royal family members to fulfill their constitutional duties. It is governed by Law 23/1982 of the National Heritage.
This includes 6 real state items:
Placed in Community of Madrid:
- The East Royal Palace and the Field of the Moor Park in Madrid City.
- The Royal Palace of Aranjuez City and the Little House of Farmer with its garden and outbuildings.
- The Royal Palace of San Lorenzo de El Escorial City, the mansion called the Little House of the Prince, with its garden and grounds work, and the so called Upper Little House, with the Houses of Trades of the Queen and the Infantes.
- The El Pardo Mount and the El Pardo Palace, with the Little House of the Prince. Zarzuela Royal Palace with the ground called La Quinta, with its palace and outbuildings; the Our Lady of Carmen Church, the Christ Convent and adjoining buildings.
And in other regions:
- The Royal Palaces of La Granja and Riofrío and its adjoining land.
- The Almudaina Palace and its gardens in Palma de Mallorca City.
Besides this, Spain has 42 properties inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO, including the Alhambra and the Elche palm grove, the works of Gaudí or PreRomanesque monuments of Oviedo, and the cities of Alcalá de Henares, Ávila, Cáceres, Córdoba, Cuenca, Ibiza, Mérida, Salamanca, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santiago de Compostela, Segovia, Tarragona y Toledo.
In the Community of Madrid there are 3 World Heritage assets, none in Madrid City: